CD30 expression in viral infection
CD30 expression can be induced on both T cells and B cells as a result of viral infection.1 It was, in fact, the induction of CD30 expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes following mitogen stimulation or viral transformation that established this glycoprotein as an activation molecule.2
Viruses are powerful stimulators, increasing the percentage of CD30-positive activated cells in the peripheral blood from less than 0.1% (basal) up to 95%, with a peak at day 3.1 Soluble CD30 has been detected in the sera of individuals infected with EBV, hepatitis B or C or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).3,4,5 CD30 expression is detectable on large numbers of immunoblasts appearing during infectious mononucleosis and B cells (and often T cells) transformed by EBV.1,6,7 Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I, -II)–infected lymphocytes and human NK cell clones also express CD30.8,9 Both EBV and HTLV-I are powerful inducers of CD30 expression.10
In HIV, the activation of CD30 on CD4-positive T cells could be a contributing factor for enhanced viral production, as CD30, via TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), induces nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation and HIV expression in chronically infected T lymphocytes.8,11
Elevated concentrations of circulating sCD30 have also been reported to correlate with disease activity in patients with HIV infection.12 Because of this, sCD30 has been used as a parameter in predicting the clinical course of primary HIV infections.13 The correlation of sCD30 levels with disease activity has been noted in hepatitis B as well.14,15 High serum levels of sCD30 represent an independent predictor of disease progression and poor prognosis for patients with viral infections.16
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- Dürkop H, Foss H-D, Eitelbach F, et al. Expression of the CD30 antigen in non-lymphoid tissues and cells. J Pathol. 2000;190(5):613-618.
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- Pizzolo G, Vinante F, Nadali G, et al. High serum level of soluble CD30 in acute primary HIV-1 infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 1997;108(2):251-253.
- Abbondanzo SL, Sato N, Straus SE, Jaffe ES. Acute infectious mononucleosis: CD30 (Ki-1) antigen expression and histologic correlations. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990;93(5):698-702.
- Stein H, Mason DY, Gerdes J, et al. The expression of the Hodgkin’s disease associated antigen Ki-1 in reactive and neoplastic lymphoid tissue: evidence that Reed-Sternberg cells and histiocytic malignancies are derived from activated lymphoid cells. Blood. 1985;66(4):848-858.
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- Herbst H, Stein H. Tumor viruses in CD30-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas. Leuk Lymphoma. 1993;9(4-5):321-328.
- Tsitsikov EN, Wright DA, Geha RS. CD30 induction of human immunodeficiency virus gene transcription is mediated by TRAF2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94(4):1390-1395.
- Kennedy MK, Willis CR, Armitage RJ. Deciphering CD30 ligand biology and its role in humoral immunity. Immunology. 2006;118(2):143-152.
- Rizzardi GP, Barcellini W, Tambussi G, et al. Plasma levels of soluble CD30, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF receptors during primary HIV-1 infection: correlation with HIV-1 RNA and the clinical outcome. AIDS. 1996;10(13):F45-F50.
- Fattovich G, Vinante F, Giustina G, et al. Serum levels of soluble CD30 in chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 1996;103(1):105-110.
- Monsalve-de Castillo F, Romero TA, Estévez J, et al. Concentrations of cytokines, soluble interleukin-2 receptor, and soluble CD30 in sera of patients with hepatitis B virus infection during acute and convalescent phases. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002;9(6):1372-1375.
- Oflazoglu E, Grewal IS, Gerber H. Targeting CD30/CD30L in oncology and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In: Grewal IS, ed. Therapeutic Targets of the TNF Superfamily. In: Back N, Cohen IR, Lajtha A, Lambris JD, Paoletti R, eds. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol 647. New York, NY: Springer; 2009:174-185.