CD30 expression in viral infection

CD30 expression can be induced on both T cells and B cells as a result of viral infection.1 It was, in fact, the induction of CD30 expression on peripheral blood lymphocytes following mitogen stimulation or viral transformation that established this glycoprotein as an activation molecule.2

Viruses are powerful stimulators, increasing the percentage of CD30-positive activated cells in the peripheral blood from less than 0.1% (basal) up to 95%, with a peak at day 3.1 Soluble CD30 has been detected in the sera of individuals infected with EBV, hepatitis B or C or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).3,4,5 CD30 expression is detectable on large numbers of immunoblasts appearing during infectious mononucleosis and B cells (and often T cells) transformed by EBV.1,6,7 Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I, -II)–infected lymphocytes and human NK cell clones also express CD30.8,9 Both EBV and HTLV-I are powerful inducers of CD30 expression.10

In HIV, the activation of CD30 on CD4-positive T cells could be a contributing factor for enhanced viral production, as CD30, via TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), induces nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) activation and HIV expression in chronically infected T lymphocytes.8,11

Elevated concentrations of circulating sCD30 have also been reported to correlate with disease activity in patients with HIV infection.12 Because of this, sCD30 has been used as a parameter in predicting the clinical course of primary HIV infections.13 The correlation of sCD30 levels with disease activity has been noted in hepatitis B as well.14,15 High serum levels of sCD30 represent an independent predictor of disease progression and poor prognosis for patients with viral infections.16

References

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  12. Kennedy MK, Willis CR, Armitage RJ. Deciphering CD30 ligand biology and its role in humoral immunity. Immunology. 2006;118(2):143-152.
  13. Rizzardi GP, Barcellini W, Tambussi G, et al. Plasma levels of soluble CD30, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and TNF receptors during primary HIV-1 infection: correlation with HIV-1 RNA and the clinical outcome. AIDS. 1996;10(13):F45-F50.
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  16. Oflazoglu E, Grewal IS, Gerber H. Targeting CD30/CD30L in oncology and autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. In: Grewal IS, ed. Therapeutic Targets of the TNF Superfamily. In: Back N, Cohen IR, Lajtha A, Lambris JD, Paoletti R, eds. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. Vol 647. New York, NY: Springer; 2009:174-185.